some questions for the upcomming exam?


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I have posted this post in another forum too, but none has been replied to me or helped, So please consider to post answers as much as you can.

10. What is an exotic stream? Name some. Why are they exotic?

11. Differentiate between a streams competence and capacity.

12. What is the difference between basin and perennial irrigation?

13. What is the difference between the dissolved load and suspended load?

14. What is a braided stream?

15. Compare and contrast laminar flow with turbulent flow.

16. Laminar flow and turbulent flow form three types of stream channels: braided, straight & meandering. How do these appear?

17. What is an oxbow lake?

18. How does a waterfall develop? Are they stationary or do they move? What is a nickpoint?

19. What is a delta? What kinds of deltas are associated with the Nile and the Mississippi Rivers?

20. What is a natural levee?

21. Rivers always want to take the shortest route to base level; sometimes rivers like the Mississippi want to take a different course to accomplish this. Note the Mississippi and the Atchafalaya River (yazoo tributary) association.

Chapter 15 Eolian Processes and Arid Landscapes

1. What is meant by the term eolian?
2. Does the wind make a big impact in terms of its ability to move materials?
3. Describe eolian erosion by deflation and abrasion.
4. How does deflation influence the formation of desert pavement?
5. Why are arid areas more likely to be associated with the erosional effects of wind?
6. What is a ventifact and how does this relate to a yardang?
7. What is the difference between a dust storm and a sand storm?
8. About 80% of wind transport of particles is accomplished by this skipping and bouncing action called ______________________ .
9. Differentiate between an erg and a reg (gibber plain)? Which type is a sand sea?
10. What is loess and where might it be found in the U.S.? These deposits in the U.S. & Europe are the product of glacial or periglacial environments; however, loess deposits in China are thought to be derived from desert rather than glacial sources. Accumulations in the Loess Plateau of China exceed 984ft of thickness.

11. Which form of dune is the mountain giant of the desert often reaching heights of 650ft?
12. What is an alluvial fan and how do they relate to a Qanat?
13. What is desertification?
Chapter 16 The Oceans, Coastal Processes, and Landforms
1. What is the average salinity of the worlds oceans?
2. Why is salinity less along the equator and greater along the subtropics?
3. Compare and contrast brackish water with brine water.
4. What is the thermocline?
5. Is sea level constant or does it vary around the world?
6. What processes are responsible for the tides?
7. Differentiate between spring tides and neap tides?
8. What are flood tides and ebb tides? How do they differ from spring tides and neap tides?
9. Differentiate between a swell and a breaker?
10. What is a swash and backwash?
11. What is the difference between longshore current (littoral drift) and beach drift?
12. What is a Tsunami (Seismic Sea Wave), how are they formed - why this name?
13. What is a wave-cut platform? (wave-cut terrace)
14. What is a tombolo?
15. What is a barrier island?
16. The most extensive chain of barrier islands in the world is along?
17. What is a coral reef and why does one not form along the U.S. Gulf Coast?
Chapter 17 Glacial and Periglacial Processes and Landforms

1. Describe the location of most of the freshwater on Earth today.
2. What is a glacier? What is implied about existing climate patterns in a glacial region?
3. What is the snowline and how does it change with latitude?
4. Differentiate between an alpine glacier and a continental glacier.
5. Name the three types of continental glaciers. What is the basis for dividing continental glaciers into types? Which types cover most of Antarctica?
6. Trace the evolution of glacial ice from fresh fallen snow. Know Accumulation Zone and Ablation Zone.
7. How does a glacier accomplish erosion?
8. Describe the evolution of a V-shaped stream valley to a U-shaped glaciated valley. What kinds of features are visible after a glacier retreats?
9. How is an iceberg generated? What is an icefloe?
10. Differentiate between two forms of glacial drift—till and outwash.
11. What is a moraine? What moraines are created by alpine and continental glaciers?
12. Contrast a roche moutonnée and a drumlin regarding appearance, orientation, and the way each forms.
13. Define two types of permafrost, and differentiate their occurrence on Earth. What are the characteristics of each?
14. What is a talik? Where might you expect to find taliks and to what depth do they occur?
17. Describe the role of frost action in the formation of various landform types in the periglacial region.
15. Relate some of the specific problems humans encounter in developing (building upon) periglacial landscapes.
16. What is paleoclimatology?


I would answer some of questions or all, but please metnion clearly, so that I can understand.